Organic Farming Methods synthesize the strengths of modern technology and traditional farming together with the science of ecology to create effective agricultural techniques that produce high yields of healthy crops without causing harm to the environment. It aims to maintain the natural ecological balance during the entire farming process. It removes all synthetic substances from the equation to arrive at organic foods which are free of any chemical residues that may be hazardous to the health of consumers. Genetically modified organisms are also not entertained. Every decision is made carefully from the location of the farm to the type of seed that is to be planted.
Crop diversity is the most popular among all Organic Farming Methods. It is also referred to as polyculture in which different species of crops are grown in succession on the same piece of land. Different kinds of plants absorb and release different nutrients from and to the soil. Planting a variety of crops therefore retains the fertility of the soil. Planting different plants also provide support for a wider variety beneficial insects, wild plants, and microorganisms that lead to increased biodiversity. Conventional farms in contrast plant only one species of plant on the soil so that they will need to use only the same type of fertilizer and the same type of machinery which all lead to reduced production costs.
Farm size is also one of the popular Organic Farming Methods. Organic farms utilize small sized farm lots because they are relatively easy to maintain even without the help of machines. Smaller yards also allow a wider variety of crops to be grown on the farm at the same time. This makes crop rotation more effective and further increases biodiversity. Having a too big farm size may cause the need for machines which organic farmers want to avoid as much as possible because machines require fuel, and fuel causes pollution whenever combusted. This is the reason why organic farms are often kept on a small scale.
Soil fertility is a very important consideration for Organic Farming Methods. Organic farms revolve around maintenance of the natural nutrient cycle in the soil. Organic farmers allow organic matter to return to the earth naturally and become fertilizer for plants. Soil fertility is important for sustainability because it ensures that the farm can continue to effectively function as a farm even after decades. Conventional farms on the other hand greatly hurt the sustainability of the soil. The different synthetic substances conventional farmers apply on their crops continuously degrade the nutrition of the soil. After a few years the soil becomes void of nutrients and turns desolate and no longer capable of supporting farm crops.